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Mutual fund sahi hai !

Updated: Jun 8, 2023

A mutual fund is a type of financial vehicle that combines shareholder funds to invest in securities such as stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and other assets. Professional money managers run mutual funds, allocating the assets and attempting to generate capital gains or income for the fund's investors. The portfolio of a mutual fund is constructed and maintained to meet the investment objectives specified in the prospectus.


Mutual funds allow small or individual investors access to professionally managed portfolios of stocks, bonds, and other instruments. As a result, each shareholder participates proportionally in the fund's profits or losses.


How are mutual funds priced ?

The value of the mutual fund is determined by the performance of the securities in which it invests. When an investor purchases a unit or share of a mutual fund, he or she is purchasing the portfolio's performance or, more accurately, a portion of the portfolio's worth. Investing in a mutual fund is not the same as investing in stock. Mutual fund shares do not give their owners any voting rights, in contrast to stock. A mutual fund share is an investment in a variety of stocks or other securities.


The price of a mutual fund share is referred to as the net asset value (NAV) per share, which is often represented as NAVPS. The NAV of a fund is calculated by dividing the entire value of the securities in the portfolio by the total number of outstanding shares. Outstanding shares are those held by all shareholders, institutional investors, and company officers or insiders.


Mutual fund shares are normally purchased or redeemed at the fund's current net asset value (NAV), which does not vary during market hours but is settled at the conclusion of each trading day. When the NAVPS is settled, the price of a mutual fund is also updated.




Types of mutual funds one can invest in :

There are many different kinds of mutual funds that can be purchased, but the majority of them fall into one of four broad groups: stock funds, money market funds, bond funds, and target-date funds.


STOCK FUNDS

This fund, as the name implies, mostly invests in equities or stocks. There are several subcategories within this group. Some equity funds are classified as small-, mid-, or large-cap based on the size of the companies they invest in. Others are identified by their style of investing, such as aggressive growth, income-focused, value, and others. Equity funds can also be divided into those that invest in domestic companies and those that do so overseas.

Funds are classified based on the size of the firms, their market capitalizations, and the growth potential of the equities in which they invest. The term value fund refers to an investment strategy that seeks out high-quality, low-growth companies that are out of favour with the market. These companies are characterized by low price-to-earnings (P/E) ratios, low price-to-book (P/B) ratios, and high dividend yields.


BOND FUNDS

A mutual fund that generates a minimum return is part of the fixed income category. A fixed-income mutual fund or bond funds concentrates on investments including corporate bonds, government bonds, and other debt instruments that have a fixed rate of return. The fund portfolio generates interest income, which is distributed to the shareholders.


INDEX FUNDS

Index Funds invest in stocks that track a significant market index like the Dow Jones Industrial Average or the S&P 500. (DJIA). This strategy requires less research from analysts and advisors, which results in lower costs being passed on to shareholders. Additionally, these funds are frequently created with cost-conscious investors in mind.


BALANCED FUNDS

Balanced funds invest in a diverse range of asset types, including stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and alternative assets. This fund, also referred to as an asset allocation fund, aims to lower the risk of exposure to various asset classes.


MONEY MARKET FUNDS

The money market is made up of safe, risk-free short-term debt instruments, principally government Treasury bills. The principal is guaranteed, but the investor will not earn significant profits. A typical return is marginally higher than the earnings in a regular checking or savings account and marginally lower than the normal certificate of deposit (CD).


INCOME FUNDS

Income funds are named for their objective, which is to deliver current income consistently. These funds invest mostly in credible corporate and government bonds, holding these bonds until maturity to generate interest income. While fund holdings may appreciate, the primary goal of these funds is to offer consistent cash flow to investors. As a result, the audience for these funds is comprised of conservative investors and retirees.




INTERNATIONAL/GLOBAL FUNDS

An international fund, often known as a foreign fund, only makes investments in assets that are situated abroad. However, global funds are able to make investments anywhere in the world. Their volatility is often influenced by the specific economic and political dangers of the nation. However, by increasing diversification, these funds can be part of a well-balanced portfolio because returns in other nations might not be connected with returns in the country of origin.


SPECIALITY FUNDS

Sector funds are targeted strategy funds aimed for particular economic sectors, like the financial, technological, or healthcare ones. Sector funds can be extremely volatile since stocks in a certain sector are highly connected with one another.

Regional funds make it easier to concentrate efforts on a certain geographic region of the world. This can involve concentrating on a larger region or a specific country.

Socially responsible funds, often known as ethical funds, invest only in companies that adhere to particular rules or ideals.


EXCHANGE TRADED FUNDS (ETFs)

ETFs are not mutual funds, but they use tactics that are similar to mutual funds. They are formed as investment trusts that are traded on stock exchanges and have the benefits of stocks.


ETFs can be bought and sold at any time throughout the trading day. ETFs can also be bought on leverage or sold short. ETFs typically charge less in fees than a comparable mutual fund. Active options markets, where investors can hedge or leverage their positions, are another advantage for many ETFs.


ETFs benefit from the same tax advantages as mutual funds. ETFs are typically more affordable and liquid than mutual funds.


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